Automotive industry application

Automotive semiconductors can be divided into five categories, namely, power devices (Power), sensors (Sensor), processors (Processor), ASSPs (mainly Connectivity and Amplifier), Logic and others. The most used semiconductor products in automobiles are sensors, MCUs and power semiconductors. Among them, MCU accounts for a high proportion, followed by power semiconductors, which are mainly used in power control systems, lighting systems, fuel injection, and chassis safety systems.

In traditional automobiles, power semiconductors are mainly used in the fields of start-up, power generation and safety. High-voltage circuits are commonly used in new energy vehicles. When the battery outputs high voltage, frequent voltage changes are needed, and the demand for voltage conversion circuits is increased. These are in great demand for semiconductor devices such as IGBTs, MOSFETs, and diodes.

According to Infineon's statistics, the value of semiconductor devices used in an average conventional fuel vehicle is $355, while the value of semiconductor devices used in pure electric vehicles/hybrid vehicles is $695, which has almost doubled. Among them, the increase in power devices is particularly significant, with a traditional fuel vehicle using power system power semiconductor devices for $17, while the value of power semiconductor devices on a pure electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle is $265, an increase of nearly 15 times.

Figure 1: Average semiconductor usage per vehicle (US $)

IGBT has high frequency, high voltage, high current, easy to switch and other excellent performance. IGBT module as a core high-voltage control switch component, its cost accounts for 40-50% of the motor controller cost, accounting for about 7-10% of the cost of new energy vehicles, DC charging pile 20-30% of the raw material cost is IGBT.

At present, China's IGBT industry has been able to have a certain industrial chain coordination ability. For example, in terms of design, there are Zhongke Junxin, Xi 'an CHIPset, etc., in terms of manufacturing, SMIC International, China Resources Shanghai, Shanghai Advanced, Huahong, etc., and the module links include CRRC Xi 'an Yongdian, Aipak, Nanjing Yinmao, etc. IDM manufacturers have BYD, CRRC Times and so on. However, 90% of China's IGBT chips are still imported, and high-end products are basically monopolized by European and American and Japanese companies, such as Infineon, Mitsubishi, Fuji Electric, Toshiba, ABB and so on.

Foreign IGBT technology started earlier, in equipment, materials, chip design and wafer manufacturing has built a high barrier, the main process equipment and substrate of domestic IGBT chips, and even high-end chips must be purchased from abroad. At the packaging level, the power density, heat dissipation performance, reliability and module design of domestic products are also seriously behind the international IGBT manufacturers. Application of semiconductor technology in automobile.